Policy Brief

Revolution and Counter-revolution in Egypt: Return to the Square One?

The revolutionary process started on 25 January 2011 in Egypt features the most of the characteristics of a ‘modern’ revolution by following a path with ups and downs. The Egyptian military, which exerted its authority in the first stage of the power struggle after Mohammad Morsi was removed from the office, could not stand up to the resistance of civil actors, and gave approval to hold the democratic elections. Muslim Brotherhood led by Mohammad Morsi seized the control. This development disturbed both revolutionist and regional and global actors, so the counter-revolution process was initiated by them through a military intervention. The ongoing repressive policies of the Sisi regime towards revolutionary actors indicate a return to the starting point. Nevertheless, the existence of many factors which caused the revolution before 2011 is the biggest obstacle in sustaining the counter- revolution. From this point of view, it can be said that the revolutionary process in Egypt is continuing despite the counter-revolution attempt.